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Russia’s predecessor, the Soviet Union, spread an ideology that was not at all credible.

The Age of Post-Truth: Communications Challenges on Europe's Eastern Flank

April 2020, Number 10.02

“States cannot enjoy great power status unless they act and operate across a complex power base that includes elements such as military power, a large and competitive economy, innovation, a relatively youthful and educated population, and a model of government that is aspired to by other states. Other factors, such as a language spoken in other countries and cultures, can also be beneficial. It is also essential that the country be able to reach out to others and that its messages carry credibility. A large part of the former Soviet Union remains a community in many ways, with widely used, shared social media platforms and shared internet providers. However, a state that does not invest in a broad power spectrum cannot sit at the “high table.”

Smart states can reallocate resources from their strengths to their weaknesses, called horizontal strengthening. They may also allocate resources to areas of strength to make them even stronger, known as vertical strengthening. For example, China has for some time been the production hub of world industry, but it has successfully diversified its power base and developed a performant military to become the second largest spender on defense and has also promoted Chinese culture and language...”

Excerpt from per Concordiam: Journal of European Security Defense Issues  10, No. 2, 2020: 10-19.

This article reflects the views of the author and are not necessarily the official policy of the United States, Germany, or any other governments.