2 humans in space suits, China and Russian

Moscow Turns to China.

Russia’s Strategic Shift in Space Policy

October 2021, Number 11.04

The date July 17, 1975, is significant in the history of space exploration: A United States Apollo module docked with a Soviet Soyuz capsule, the first time the two countries had met in space. It marked what is broadly considered the end of the space race between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The new era began with a Russian-American handshake approximately 140 miles above Earth.

Afterward, especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, cooperation between the two space powerhouses intensified. More common projects were carried out, including an 11-mission program (1993-1998) that involved NASA space shuttles docking with the Russian Mir orbital station and American and European astronauts spending time with their Russian counterparts in space. The culmination of this cooperation between NASA and Roscosmos, the Russian space agency, was the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) that began in 1998. It has been continuously inhabited since 2000. In 2011, after 30 years in operation, the space shuttle program was retired, and the U.S. lost the capability to launch astronauts into space. Crews were carried to the ISS by Russian Soyuz spacecraft...”

Excerpt from Paweł Bernat, “Russia’s Strategic Shift in Space Policy,” per Concordiam: Journal of European Security Defense Issues 11, No. 4, 2021: 48-53.

Dr. Paweł Bernat is a lecturer of security studies at the Polish Military University of Aviation. His areas of expertise include strategic aspects of outer space, with a special focus on militarization and weaponization of Earth’s orbit, and on proxy and hybrid warfare in Eastern Europe. He is a member of the Polish Space Professionals Association.

This article reflects the views of the author and are not necessarily the official policy of the United States, Germany, or any other governments.