“Historically, the adoption of new technologies has resulted in three important revolutions in industry. The first revolution came with the advent of steam-powered machines; the second with the harnessing of electricity; and the third with the advent of computers, leading to automation of production processes.
Industry 4.0 is the current trend, using technology related to cyberphysical systems, the internet of things and cloud data storage. Through these innovations, it is now possible to build “smart factories,” integrating human decision-making with computerized automation, making the manufacturing process more efficient and effective.
Some characteristics of Industry 4.0 are interoperability between machines and people; information transparency; technical assistance that allows systems to support human decision-making or to do hazardous tasks; and decentralized, autonomous decision-making for specific activities using cyber tools...”
Excerpt from Walbery Nogueira de Lima e Silva, “Wicked Threats,” per Concordiam: Journal of European Security Defense Issues 9, No. 1, 2018: 54-57.
Maj. Walbery Nogueira de Lima e Silva of the Brazilian Army is staff officer at the country’s Cyber Defense Command. He served as commander of the 2nd Army Signal Company from 2012 to 2013 and chief of the Cyber Operations Division of the Brazilian Cyber Defense Center in 2016. Walbery has attended German Armed Forces and NATO System of Command and Control courses and the Marshall Center’s Program on Cyber Security Studies.
This article reflects the views of the author and are not necessarily the official policy of the United States, Germany, or any other governments.