Spain's Digital Defenses
“There have been a number of large-scale cyber attacks on critical services and critical infrastructure that have been widely covered in the media. But there have also been attacks with similar impacts that have gone largely unnoticed. These attacks will increase as the connectivity of industrial control systems, communications networks and internet-of-things devices continue to grow. This connectivity has many advantages in operation and management, but introduces new threats related to the internet, or cyberspace, domain. Cyberspace’s global scope, low cost of access, anonymity, asymmetry, and its operational time measured in milliseconds are characteristics that hasten the rapid evolution of these new threats.
Attacks can vary in impact. In 2000, more than 2 million liters of untreated water was dumped into rivers and parks in Maroochy, Australia, as a result of several remote cyber attacks by a disgruntled worker. In 2008 in Lodz, Poland, four trains were derailed and several people were injured because a 14-year-old turned his television remote control into a device able to change the switch rails of the tracks...”
Excerpt from Alberto Hernández, “Spain's Digital Defenses,” per Concordiam: Journal of European Security Defense Issues 9, No. 1, 2018: 36-41.
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