“In the 21st century, cyberspace has become the fifth domain of conflict, together with air, land, sea and space. Countries increasingly exploit cyberspace to achieve political or military goals or for geopolitical advantage. The number of states successfully developing offensive cyber capabilities is constantly increasing, and cyber warfare is rapidly becoming an integral component of war and conflict. Russia, especially, has successfully integrated cyber elements into its hybrid war tactics. Its offensive cyber activities encompass all military, diplomatic, political, economic, social, cultural and religious areas, which it uses to exert technical and psychological impacts on its targets. As a result of experiences gained from conducting cyber attacks and information operations in Estonia (2007) and in Georgia (2008), Russia has evolved its offensive cyber tactics to its present-day application in Ukraine. Analysis of these conflicts proves that Russia uses conflict territories as training ranges on which to test its cyber-offensive capabilities.
Cyber attacks against Estonia in 2007 were conducted to induce civil unrest. This was the first recognizable attempt to use a cyber attack to influence political processes...”
Excerpt from Andria Gotsiridze and Maka Petriashvili, “Rebooting Security,” per Concordiam: Journal of European Security Defense Issues 9, No. 1, 2018: 42-47.
This article reflects the views of the author and are not necessarily the official policy of the United States, Germany, or any other governments.