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People pray and light candles set up in front of floral tributes in Albert Square in Manchester, northwest England on May 23, 2017, in solidarity with those killed and injured in the May 22 terror attack at the Ariana Grande concert at the Manchester Arena.

A sense of nonbelonging fuels violent radicalization.

Excluded

July 2017, Number 08.03

“Thus far, most of the models and theories attempting to explain how and why individuals become radicalized tend to view radicalization as a consequence of some preceding phenomena. In 2015, the scholars Mohammed Hafez and Creighton Mullins summarized the most recent empirical literature on the causes and dynamics of the radicalization of homegrown extremism in the West by proposing a theoretical synthesis. According to their theory, violent radicalization is, metaphorically speaking, a puzzle that is comprised of four pieces: grievances; networks and interpersonal ties; political and religious ideologies; and enabling environments and supporting structures. When these four pieces come together, individuals are said to transform into violent extremists. Although the “ingredients” are (thought to be) known, countering radicalization is still a very difficult and complex task. In fact, up to the present day, a single and universal explanation for radicalization has yet been found, and it seems that searching for one may be a fruitless endeavor...”

Excerpt from Lorand Bodo,“Excluded,” per Concordiam: Journal of European Security Defense Issues 8, No. 3, 2017: 10-17.

Lorand Bodo is a researcher at the consulting firm Ridgeway Information with a focus on the use of open source intelligence to support national and international security. He graduated with distinction from Aston University in England with a master’s degree in governance and international politics, and he earned a master’s degree in politics with a focus on the governance of innovative and complex technological systems from the University of Bamberg in Germany. He completed his Master of Research degree in security science at the Security and Crime Science Department at University College London.

This article reflects the views of the author and are not necessarily the official policy of the United States, Germany, or any other governments.