Author: Mark Galeotti - MC Series: Security Insights, Number 39 - Published: September 2019

sipaper39Russia is waging a political war campaign of active measures intended to divide, distract, and dismay European states.

The institutions of the European Union (EU) have made very patchy and often reluctant responses to this campaign, in part as a result of a lack of consensus among member states.

A primary issue, though, is the dramatically different strategic cultures and operational codes of the EU and Russia.

The EU faces a campaign of Russian active measures—covert political subversion—that has been called “hybrid warfare” but is probably best understood as opportunistic political warfare. The aim is to divide, distract, and dismay the Europeans such that they cannot or will not resist Moscow’s wider political agenda. Against this campaign, in the words of an admittedly Euroskeptic British security official, “the EU is nowhere, simply nowhere.

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